Converting Raumbild-Verlag Stereographs To Anaglyphs

These converted stereographs (German: raumbilder “space pictures”) are from an album entitled “Bad Reichenhall – Berchtesgaden” published by Raumbild Verlag between 1945 and 1948. Bad Reichenhall and Berchtesgaden are towns in the Bavarian Alps in Germany. The album consists of 20 stereograph cards, with each card being 6 cm by 13 cm. The album also contains an adjustable stereograph viewer (German: raumbildbetrachter “space image viewer” or raumbildbrille “space image glasses”). In contrast to the ones produced during World War II, these stereographs are focused on the scenery of Bad Reichenhall, Berchtesgaden, and the surrounding areas.

Raumbild Verlag was founded by Otto Wilhelm Schönstein (1891-1958) in the early 1930s (Hotze, 2015, para. 1). The company was moved to Munich in 1939 (Hotze, 2015, para. 2). Heinrich Hoffmann (1885-1957), Adolf Hitler’s official photographer, had by that point become a partner in the company (Schröter, 2014, p. 191). Continuing from his demand in 1937 that Schönstein “should withdraw to a subordinate, more technical position,” Hoffman moved from being a partner to that of managing director in 1939 (Schröter, 2014, p. 191). Schröter (2014, p. 191) contends that Schönstein “could not do anything against it because of Hoffmann’s prominent position.” In addition to Hoffmann, Hitler himself seemed to take an interest in stereoscopy, along with Albert Speer, the Minister of Armaments and War Production, which Schröter (2012, p. 136) suggests “has something to do with the ideology of space in National Socialism.” Despite this, Martins and Reverseau (2016, p. 171) argue that the propaganda value of the books was undermined by, amongst a few factors, “a break between image and caption that prevented the viewer/reader from experiencing the potentially synergistic reinforcement between image and text that was a cornerstone of Nazi photographic propaganda.” According to Uziel (2008, p. 244), photographers in the Wehrmacht Propaganda Troops (“Propagandakompanien der Wehrmacht”) were equipped with 3D cameras, from at least January 1940. The photos were sent on to Raumbild Verlag, which is considered by Uziel to have “practically monopolized the field of 3D photography in Nazi Germany” (2008, p. 245).

Each set of cards was expensive. Martins and Reverseau (2016, p. 173) note the 35 Reichsmark purchase price of a 1941 stereoscopic photo album, comparing it to the monthly rental cost of four-room apartments in the city of Nuremberg in 1940. Calculating the modern equivalent of 35 Reichsmarks can be difficult, given that the currency no longer exists, along with the amount itself being about 80 years old. Edvinsson (2016) suggests an approximate value ranging from about $200 to $800 Canadian dollars (in 2015), using the CPI and gold and silver values. Marcuse (2013) provides a conversion rate of 2.5 Reichsmarks to one US Dollar in 1940. Using the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2017) CPI inflation calculator, the amount of $14 USD in 1940 is roughly $245 in 2017. Martins and Reverseau (2016, p. 173) conclude that such stereoscopic photobooks could rightfully be considered luxury items.

Each stereograph was scanned on an Epson V850 Pro at 2400 DPI. The resulting scan was touched up (e.g. removal of scratches, dust, dirt, and other imperfections originating from the creation process or from age and storage) and then sharpened in Photoshop with Smart Sharpen at 65% and a radius of 1 px. The stereograph images themselves are not very sharp (as seen under 10x and 22x loupes), so a smaller radius was not likely to be helpful in producing better sharpness.

While the viewing glasses for these stereographs are not too difficult to acquire, it is still an obstacle to viewing the images as they were intended (i.e. in 3D). The goal here was to see whether these stereographs can be converted to anaglyphs (red-cyan). I have not been able to find any previous attempts at this goal. Overall, I believe the goal was achieved, and the experience with the anaglyphs is similar to that with the intended stereograph viewer.

 

Overview of the steps of the anaglyph creation process.

Overview of the steps of the anaglyph creation process.

 

A selection of the stereographs, with their original captions immediately below:

 

"Sonnige Terrassen-Hotels und Villen in Berchtesgaden"

“Sonnige Terrassen-Hotels und Villen in Berchtesgaden”

 

"Berchtesgaden"

“Berchtesgaden”

 

"Am Marktplatz in Berchtesgaden"

“Am Marktplatz in Berchtesgaden”

 

"Der Blick zum Watzmann"

“Der Blick zum Watzmann”

 

"Wildromantische Landschaft am Obersee"

“Wildromantische Landschaft am Obersee”

 

"Alter Brunnen am Marktplatz in Berchtesgaden"

“Alter Brunnen am Marktplatz in Berchtesgaden”

 

References

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). CPI inflation calculator. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm

Edvinsson, R. (2016). Historical currency converter. Retrieved from http://www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html

Marcuse, H. (2013). Historical Dollar-to-Marks currency conversion. Retrieved from http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/projects/currency.htm

Martins, S. S., & Reverseau, A. (2016). Paper cities: Urban portraits in photographic books. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.

Schröter, J. (2012). The transplane image and the future of cinema In A. Petho (Ed.), Film in the post-media age (pp. 125-142). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Schröter, J. (2014). 3D: History, theory and aesthetics of the transplane image. London, UK: A & C Black.

Uziel, D. (2008). The propaganda warriors: The Wehrmacht and the consolidation of the German home front. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang Publishing.

 

Fritzing Parts – Sixth Set

This is the sixth set of Fritzing parts that I’ve made. The first set of parts, along with details about Fritzing and about part creation, can be found here. All sets can be found under the ‘fritzing’ tag here. As with the previous sets, these are generally parts that I’ve needed for my own projects.

The group of Fritzing parts.

The group of Fritzing parts.

 

The group of Fritzing parts, numbered.

The group of Fritzing parts, numbered.

The parts are as follows:

  1. Orange Pi One
  2. 16 RGB LED ring
  3. 12 RGB LED ring
  4. 8 RGB LED ring
  5. 1 RGD LED ring
  6. 7 RGB LED ring
  7. MAX471 Breakout Board
  8. TSL2561 Breakout Board
  9. HG7881 Breakout Board
  10. 8 Channel Power Relay

Since the Fritzing parts repository (code.google.com/p/fritzing/issues/detail?id=2753) is no longer available for sharing parts, they will be posted here instead.   If you’d like to make a request for the next set, please leave the following details in the comment section below:

  1. The name of the board/module
  2. The outside dimensions in millimeters
  3. Details about each pin (i.e. name — e.g. VCC, GND, SDA)
  4. An image of it at a reasonable resolution (and as close to parallel to the image plane as possible)

Installing Open edX on Linode

Open edX is an open source course management system. This guide presents one method of installing Open edX (Eucalyptus) on Linode.

1 Assumptions

1.1 Installed Software Packages

  • PuTTY SSH (or other SSH application)

1.2 Accounts

It is assumed that you have a Linode account.

2 Setup and Launching

After logging into the ‘Linode Manager’, click Linodes in the top menu.

On the ‘Select your plan’ page, select a suitable plan – this guide will assume that ‘Linode 4096’ (or better) is chosen.

Click Add this Linode!

Figure 1: Linode selection page

Figure 1: Linode selection page

Back on the Linodes page, under ‘Options’ click Dashboard.

Click Deploy an Image.

For ‘Image’ Ubuntu 12.04 LTS should be selected

Leave ‘Deployment Disk Size’ and ‘Swap Disk’ alone

Enter a suitable password for ‘Root Password’.

Click Deploy.

Figure 2: Deploying an image

Figure 2: Deploying an image

Once the deployment is complete (as indicated by the progress bar under ‘Host Job Queue’), the configuration profile will appear (under ‘Dashboard’), and the ‘Server Status’ will be set to ‘Powered Off’ (instead of, e.g. ‘Brand New’). You can click Edit under ‘Dashboard’ to makes changes to the configuration profile – for example, changing the label, or adding notes.

Click Boot to launch the Linode.

If a popup appears (as in Figure 3), click OK.

Figure 3: Linode boot confirmation popup

Figure 3: Linode boot confirmation popup

Once launched, the ‘Server Status’ will be set to ‘Running’.

3 Connecting

Open PuTTY (See Figure 4). The program will start in the ‘Session’ section.

Figure 4: PuTTY interface

Figure 4: PuTTY interface

Back in the Linode Manager, while in the dashboard for the Linode, click Remote Access. Under ‘Network Access’ select and copy the IP address next to ‘Public IPs’.

Figure 5: Location of IP Linode IP address

Figure 5: Location of IP Linode IP address

In Putty, paste the IP address into the field labelled ‘Host Name (or IP address)’.

Ensure that the ‘connection type’ is “SSH” and that the ‘port’ is “22”.

To connect to the server, click Open (the red box in Figure 6).

Figure 6: PuTTY with IP address entered

Figure 6: PuTTY with IP address entered

If a warning box appears (i.e. “PuTTY Security Alert”), simply click Yes.

Enter “root” as the username (‘login as’). Enter the ‘Root Password’ that was created during the deployment step.

Once that is done, the terminal should appear as below:

Figure 7: The terminal after logging in

Figure 7: The terminal after logging in

4 Updating

Update the installed operating system (e.g. Ubuntu) by typing:

Reboot the server by clicking Reboot in the Linode Manager, or by typing the following in the terminal:

You will likely get an error in PuTTY (See Figure 8) and, if using the Linode Manager, a confirmation popup (See Figure 9). Just click Ok in both cases.

Figure 8: PuTTY disconnection notice

Figure 8: PuTTY disconnection notice

Figure 9: Linode reboot confirmation popup

Figure 9: Linode reboot confirmation popup

5 Installing GRUB 2

Using PuTTY, connect to the server again.

Install GRUB 2 by typing:

Select the first option (‘/dev/sda’) using the spacebar, then press the tab key to highlight ‘<Ok>’, then press enter.

Figure 10: The appropriate selection for GRUB install devices

Figure 10: The appropriate selection for GRUB install devices

Edit the configuration file by typing:

Change the variables to reflect the following:

Type Ctrl+O to write the changes, then press enter, then type Ctrl+X to exit. Having made changes to the configuration file, type:

In the Linode manager, click “Edit” under ‘Dashboard’ to makes changes to the configuration profile.

Figure 11: Editing the configuration profile

Figure 11: Editing the configuration profile

Under ‘Virtual Machine Mode’, change ‘VM Mode’ to Full-virtualization.

Under ‘Boot Settings’, change ‘Kernel’ to GRUB 2.

Scroll down and click Save Changes.

Back on the Dashboard, click Reboot.

6 Installing Kernel Header Files

Using PuTTY, connect to the server again.

Install kernel header files by typing:

Reboot the server by clicking “Reboot” in the Linode Manager, or by typing:

7 Installing Open edX

Using PuTTY, connect to the server again.

To find the Git tag for the most recent Open edX release, click here.

The most current release, Eucalyptus, is installed here (git tag: “open-release/eucalyptus.2”).

To install Open edX, first type:

It should take a minute or two on a Linode 4096. Errors regarding “pathlib2” and “yaml” can be ignored.

Once that is complete, type:

This will take about 1 hour 30 minutes on a Linode 4096. Errors regarding “mysql-server” and Ruby can be ignored.

Figure 12: Open edX installed

Figure 12: Open edX installed

8 Post-Installation Note

This guide is concerned with installing Open edX on a new Linode. There are, though, other things to consider, such as server security. Consider reading a book like “Linux Server Security” by Chris Binnie to learn more on that particular subject.